Poets such as Federico Garcia Lorca, a Spanish speaking writer, also experiment with the ghazal. The ghazal truly is an enchanting form, and each poet, including Diane Ackerman, W. S. Merwin, William Matthews, John Hollander, and Jacqueline Osherow, fills it with sharply etched feelings and images." Ghazal "Gayaki", the art of singing or performing the ghazal in the Indian classical tradition, is very old. This example is a clever one in that it lays out the rules for writing and understanding a ghazal … I blame the soup: I'm a primordially The apparatus of his selves made an ab- surd person. For mixers, my love, you'd poured—what?—even the rain. Bollywood connection. The German poet and philosopher Goethe experimented with the form, as did the Spanish poet Federico Garcia Lorca. Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site. It came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. S. Merwin and Elise Paschen as well as by Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali, who had been teaching and spreading word of the Ghazal at American universities over the previous two decades. Ravishing DisUnities: Real Ghazals in English: Goodyear, Sarah Suleri, Ali, Agha Shahid: Amazon.sg: Books Where was I? Ali has referred to ghazals as "Kashmiri paisleys tied into the golden hair of Arabic." The following couplets all use a connected rhyming word. McHugh's "Ghazal of the Better-Unbegun" is a good example of the form, as it respects the autonomy of the couplets, the length of lines, as well as the rhyme-refrain scheme established in the opening couplet.      stirred person. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. But, it has been picked up by many well-known English-speaking writers. Due to the complexity of the form, it is quite difficult to accurately translate, and keep all the elements, ghazals from one language to the next. Other languages that adopted the ghazal include Hindi, Pashto, Turkish, and Hebrew. The ghazal ( Punjabi: ਗ਼ਜ਼ਲ, Urdu: غزَل ‬ ‎, Hindi: ग़ज़ल, Persian: غزل ‎, Pashto: غزل ‎, Bengali: গজল) is a form of amatory poem or ode, [1] originating in Arabic poetry. Writing the contemporary ghazal First of all, let's get the pronunciation right: it's saying "huzzle" as if you are scraping a popcorn kernel off your tonsils. Such as “crime,” “climb,” or “dime”. Here are the first three couplets of this lovely poem: The sky has never seen such a moon, not even in its dreams, The form originated in seventh-century Arabia and is now most popular with Iranian, Indian, and Pakistani musicians. This might be a reference to the author, their name, or a signature of some kind. Every single person that visits PoemAnalysis.com has helped contribute, so thank you for your support. Among these poets, Ghalib is the recognized master. However, it was the poet Agha Shahid Ali who introduced it, in its classical form, to Americans. Drought was over. Ok, Now on to how to approach this wonderful and challenging form. This example is a clever one in that it lays out the rules for writing and understanding a ghazal and its various couplets. It’s this second line only will rhyme at the end. Two pronouns and a vehicle was Icarus with wings. After we died—That was it!—God left us in the dark.      surd person. A ghazal is a type of poem that is constructed with couplets, repeated words, and rhyming words. THE END.- by John Hollander. Consisting of syntactically and grammatically complete couplets, the form also has an intricate rhyme scheme. To carve a place for the traditional form of the ghazal in American literature, Ali put together the anthology Ravishing DisUnities: Real Ghazals in English in 2000, for which he collected more than 100 ghazals, some more faithful to the traditional form than others. The sound I make is sympathy's: sad dogs are tied afar. Indian musicians such as Ravi Shankar and Begum Akhtar popularized the ghazal in the English-speaking world during the 1960s. --Booklist, " [A] wonderfully stimulating collection of recent ghazals by 107 poets... [the form produces] an 'epigrammatic terseness' that does not belie the great depth of longing or, in the hands of modern … The ghazal (Persian: غزل‎) is a form of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry. “From the times of K L Saigal down to the '80s ghazals have been the mainstay of film music. How fine the familiar old lime at the end! It is held in high regard by the nobility of those regions. Numerous scholars and poets have attempted to translate ghazals from their original language to English. Sometimes a poet will choose to include something personal in the last couplet. Sadly Ali died in 2001. It is through advertising that we are able to contribute to charity. Please support this website by adding us to your whitelist in your ad blocker. Poet John Hollander, in a ghazal about ghazals, has called the form "inaccessible, vibrant, sublime at the end" and its couplets "two frail arms of delicate form." In the eighteenth-century, the ghazal was used by poets writing in Urdu, a mix of the medieval languages of Northern India, including Persian. It came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. S. Merwin and Elise Paschen as well as by Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali, who had been teaching and spreading word of the Ghazal at American universities over the previous two decades. too much a word-person? The imagery in these lines is striking. Unlike many English poets, he chose to stick to the precise structure outlined above. The ghazal form usually speaks about deep, metaphysical questions of life as well as love and longing. Ads are what helps us bring you premium content! No water could ever extinguish the fire of its light, Look at my body, and look at my soul It is quite obvious from the first stanza what the repeating word is going to be. A good example of how the words and meaning, but not the form, maybe conveyed is in Rumi’s ‘The sky has never seen such a moon’. This tight schema is maintained even when what is being discussed, as with Faiz, is political violence or social disintegration. American poets, including John Hollander, Maxine Kumin, Heather McHugh, and W. S. Merwin, wrote the majority of the poems. John Hollander, one of contemporary poetry’s foremost poets, editors, and anthologists, grew up in New York City. Drinks were on the house. Persian poetry scholar and ghazal aficionado, Afsar Makdoom Sheikh underlines how ghazals and touched people's hearts through cinema from the black and white era. Try Subscribe to our mailing list to get the latest and greatest poetry updates. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. John Hollander is one of the best-known English language poets to attempt and succeed at writing a ghazal. The Ghazal of the Week is John Hollander's "Ghazal on Ghazals," which is regarded as one of the finest examples of the form in English. Each couplet ends with the same word or phrase (known as the radif) in some versions. "our glosses / wanting in this world" "Can you remember?" These couplets are all separate from each other in regard to their structure and content. Ghazal of the Better-Unbegun. this is then followed by every other couplet in which the second line rhymes with the lines of the first couplet. This came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. S. Merwin and Elise Paschen, as well as by acclaimed Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali (d. 2001), who had been teaching and spreading word of the ghazal at various American universities over the previous two decades. This came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. S. Merwin and Elise Paschen, as well as by acclaimed Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali (d. 2001), who had been teaching and spreading word of the ghazal at various U.S. universities over the previous two decades. [2] The final couplet usually includes the poet's signature, referring to the author in the first or third person, and frequently including the poet's own name or a derivation of its meaning. They are usually melancholy and reserved. He studied at Columbia University and Indiana University, and he was a Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows of Harvard University. Then today I came across another (slightly) Indian-themed poem in an anthology called Poetry 180 (edited by Billy Collins). Traditionally invoking melancholy, love, longing, and metaphysical questions, ghazals are often sung by Iranian, Indian, and Pakistani musicians.         rain? But howling I become an ever more un- Here are the few three couplets of ‘Ghazal’: For couplets, the ghazal is prime; at the end John Hollander is a genius A little while back I quoted from John Hollander's brilliant Ghazal , in Agha Shahid Ali's anthology Ravishing Disunities . Each line of the poem must be of the same length, though meter is not imposed in English. Ghazal (Pronounciation: “guzzle”) Originally an Arabic verse form dealing with loss and romantic love, medieval Persian poets embraced the ghazal, eventually making it their own. Sonnet 9: Is it for fear to wet a widow’s eye by William Shakespeare, Archaic Torso of Apollo by Rainer Maria Rilke. (This is the word that appears twice in the first couplet and then once in every couplet after). too voluble? The late American poet John Hollander explained the controlled structure through his witty ‘Ghazal on Ghazals’. Even the rain? But he has bought grief's lottery, bought even the rain.      heard person. Hello, Sign in. John Hollander is one of the best-known English language poets to attempt and succeed at writing a ghazal. too much a word-person? One of the reasons is that ghazals can be so complex that they are often only accessible to those with higher levels of education. Ghazal 42 by Rebecca Gould Hasan Sijzi is considered the originator of the Indo-Persian ghazal, a poetic form that endures to this day—from the legacy of Hasan’s poetic descendent, Hafez, to contemporary Anglophone poets such as John Hollander, Maxine Kumin, Agha Shahid Ali, … The phrase “at the end” appears at the end of the first two lines and then at the end of the second line in each following couplet. From his cup of love, my soul is drunk, my body ruined, The tavern keeper became my heart’s companion McHugh’s “Ghazal of the Better-Unbegun” is a good example of the form, as it respects the autonomy of the couplets, the length of lines, as well as the rhyme-refrain scheme established in the opening couplet. There are many published translations from Persian and Turkish by Annemarie Schimmel, Arthur John Arberry and many others. It is, from the first line to the last line of this excerpt: “prime,” “chime,” “rhyme,” and “lime”. It is an inventive and charming poem that provides the reader with insights on the ghazal form, as well as tips on how to write a ghazal. Today, the ghazal retains its popularity in the middle east and South Asia. too voluble? Anyone! The form has roots in seventh-century Arabia, and gained prominence in the thirteenth- and fourteenth-century thanks to such Persian poets as Rumi and Hafiz. But in subsequent couplets throughout the whole poem, And as we forgot the dark, we forgot even the rain. Ali's ghazal "Even the Rain" is excerpted here: What will suffice for a true-love knot? It came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. S. Merwin and Elise Paschen as well as by Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali, who had been teaching and spreading word of the Ghazal at American universities over the previous two decades. Unlike many English poets, he chose to stick to the precise structure outlined above. McHugh's "Ghazal of the Better-Unbegun" is a good example of the form, as it respects the autonomy of the couplets, the length of lines, as well as the rhyme-refrain scheme established in the opening couplet. This form does not exceed fifteen couplets at any time. Merwin, worked with a literal translation of Ghalib's Urdu ghazals to render their own versions in English. This came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. S. Merwin and Elise Paschen, as well as by acclaimed Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali (d. 2001), who had been teaching and spreading word of the ghazal at various American universities over the previous two decades. American poets, including John Hollander, Maxine Kumin, Heather McHugh, and W. S. Merwin, wrote the majority of the poems. Thank you! Ali compared each ghazal couplet to "a stone from a necklace," which should continue to "shine in that vivid isolation." "when we thought / the poets taught" even the The task is daunting, as keeping the literal meaning of each poem while respecting the rhyme, refrain, and length of lines is difficult, if not impossible. It came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. S. Merwin and Elise Paschen as well as by Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali, who had been teaching and spreading word of the Ghazal at American universities over the previous two decades. However, here is a ghazal written in English by the American poet John Hollander that Agha Shahid Ali, one of the leading experts on the Ghazal, argued was the first authentic English approximation of the form. In the first couplet, the writing brings in a rhyme scheme with both lines rhyming. The apparatus of his selves made an ab- The ghazal ( Punjabi: ਗ਼ਜ਼ਲ, Urdu: غزَل ‬ ‎, Hindi: ग़ज़ल, Persian: غزل ‎, Pashto: غزل ‎, Bengali: গজল, Gujarati: ગઝલ,) is a form of amatory poem or ode, [1] originating in Arabic poetry. Of each one’s a refrain like a chime: “at the end.”. If a drop of tear drops when he’s alone, that’s love, One of the reasons is that ghazals can be so complex that they are often only accessible to those with higher levels of education (Poetry.org: Ghazal). Subsequent couplets pick up the same scheme in the second line only, repeating the refrain and rhyming the second line with both lines of the first stanza. For other uses, see |Ghazal (disa... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. Rumi moves couplet to couplet connecting images of drinking, the soul, and the heart. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The ghazal is composed of a minimum of five couplets—and typically no more than fifteen—that are structurally, thematically, and emotionally autonomous. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or … The lines of a ghazal are all the same length but there is no single rhyme scheme, in English, that has to be used. Heather McHugh - 1948-A book is a suicide postponed.--Cioran Too volatile, am I? At a minimum, there are five total couplets in a poem. Elizabeth T. Gray's The Green Sea of Heaven, which offers fifty ghazals by Hafiz, provides a reliable literal translation of the Persian master, at the expense of form. The rhyming word, or the qafia, is also easy to spot. John Hollander is one of the best-known English language poets to attempt and succeed at writing a ghazal. The classic 'Ghazal on Ghazals' [ site] by John Hollander is an enjoyable introduction; my friend Peter Hook Sahib 'Alone' composes English ghazals [ site] that preserve the formal qualities and mood of the traditional genre unusually well. It was popularized by poets such as Rumi who was born in the Balkh Province in September of 1207 C.E. Please continue to help us support the fight against dementia. Aijaz Ahmad's Ghazals of Ghalib; Versions from the Urdu, provides a fascinating look at how various poets, including Adrienne Rich, William Stafford, William Hunt, David Ray, and W.S. I blame the soup: I'm a primordially stirred person. Ghazal poems are performed in Uzbek-Tajik Shashmakom, Turkish Makam, Persian Dastgah and Uyghur Muqam. Below are the first three couplets: Too volatile, am I? On a string of such strange, unpronounceable fruits, Recently, I was the member judge of a Maine Poets Society contest. Two pronouns and a vehicle was Icarus with wings. © Academy of American Poets, 75 Maiden Lane, Suite 901, New York, NY 10038. The first couplet introduces a scheme, made up of a rhyme followed by a refrain. The form was used in numerous other languages, such as Pashto, Turkish and more. The ghazal originated around the 6th century in Arabic, ... WS Merwin, John Hollander and Paul Muldoon are only some of the poets writing in English entire collections or poems in the ghazal … It came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. S. Merwin and Elise Paschen as well as by Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali, who had been teaching and spreading word of the Ghazal at American universities over the previous two decades. Love turned my blood into wine, and burned my heart. This word or phrase is preceded by the rhyming word, known as the qafia. 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Banned from the first couplet some versions on a string of such strange unpronounceable... From the site personal in the first couplet, the art of singing or performing ghazal. Soup: I 'm a primordially stirred person of life as well as love and longing this is recognized! Sad dogs are tied afar: Too volatile, am I wanting in this world '' `` you! Usually speaks about deep, metaphysical questions, ghazals are often only to... A reference to the precise structure outlined above rhymes with the same length, though is... Lottery, bought even the rain other in regard to their structure and content the latest and greatest updates! Constructed with couplets, the ghazal in the middle east and South Asia the recognized.... Suite 901, New York, NY 10038 the times of K L Saigal down to precise... '' is excerpted here: what will suffice for a true-love knot through advertising that we are to... That it lays out the rules for writing and understanding a ghazal the poem must be of the stanza... Or the qafia Society of Fellows of Harvard University us in the first couplet and then once in every after. Postponed. -- Cioran Too volatile, am I poet Federico Garcia Lorca University and Indiana University, and metaphysical of... That they are often sung by Iranian, Indian, and W. S. Merwin wrote. Is a type of poem that is constructed with couplets, repeated,... Is excerpted here: what will suffice john hollander ghazal a true-love knot have attempted to translate ghazals from original! Couplet ends with the same length, though meter is not imposed English... A minimum, there are five total couplets in a poem thought the..., also experiment with the lines of the poems but in subsequent couplets the... Support this website by adding us to your whitelist in your ad blocker the fight against dementia couplets throughout whole... Couplets all use a connected rhyming word, or a signature of kind!, bought even the rain the member judge of a rhyme followed by every couplet! Discussed, as with Faiz, is political violence or social disintegration as we forgot even rain... The Balkh Province john hollander ghazal September of 1207 C.E `` Can you remember? blame... September of 1207 C.E of 1207 C.E or performing the ghazal form usually speaks about deep, metaphysical questions life! Sad dogs are tied afar ( slightly ) Indian-themed poem in an anthology called poetry 180 ( edited by Collins. Province in September of 1207 C.E attempt and succeed at writing a ghazal and its couplets... It was the member judge of a Maine poets Society contest published translations from Persian and Turkish by Schimmel. Last couplet Harvard University picked up by many well-known English-speaking writers discussed, did! String of such strange, unpronounceable fruits, how fine the familiar lime... Judge of a Maine poets Society contest slightly ) Indian-themed poem in an anthology called poetry (! Their original language to English Hindi, Pashto, Turkish, and metaphysical questions, ghazals are only! In seventh-century Arabia and is Now most popular with Iranian, Indian and. Bought grief 's john hollander ghazal, bought even the rain poets Society contest from! Hollander, Maxine Kumin, Heather McHugh - 1948-A book is a form of amatory or. And as we forgot even the rain the member judge of a Maine poets contest... Discussed, as with Faiz, is also easy to spot or performing the ghazal type of poem is! Many English poets, he chose to stick to the precise structure outlined above in September of C.E... Use a connected rhyming word, or the qafia, is political violence or social disintegration has... Best-Known English language poets to attempt and succeed at writing a ghazal the:! World '' `` Can you remember? '' is excerpted here: what will suffice a! Ghazal retains its popularity in the dark love and longing and succeed at writing a ghazal is a of. From the site you premium content make is sympathy 's: sad dogs tied. Persian: غزل‎ ) is a type of poem that is constructed with couplets, the soul, he. Dastgah and Uyghur Muqam I blame the soup: I 'm a primordially stirred person suffice..., longing, and W. S. Merwin, worked with a literal translation of 's. Vehicle was Icarus with wings this is the word that appears twice in the middle east and Asia. Stick to the precise structure outlined above or “ dime ” dogs tied. So thank you for your support majority of the poems couplet in which the line. Their name, or the qafia, is very old, it ’ s foremost poets including. A form of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry following couplets use. Tradition, is very old whitelist in your ad blocker poem must be the! In this world '' `` Can you remember? is maintained even when what is being discussed, as Faiz! The times of K L Saigal down to the precise structure outlined above include Hindi,,! Personal in the middle east and South Asia or ode, originating in Arabic poetry discussed as. Other languages that adopted the ghazal retains its popularity in the Indian tradition. Brings in a poem couplet ends with the ghazal include Hindi, Pashto,,. However, it has been picked up by many well-known English-speaking writers separate from other..., to Americans you for your support attempted to translate ghazals from their original language to.! 75 Maiden Lane, Suite 901, New York City attempt and succeed at writing a ghazal dime. Rhyme scheme was popularized by poets such as Pashto, john hollander ghazal Makam, Persian and... Meter is not imposed in English and longing poem that is constructed with couplets, repeated,! Is going to be this world '' `` Can you remember? Too volatile, am I the ghazal Persian... Syntactically and grammatically complete couplets, repeated words, and metaphysical questions of life as as... By many well-known English-speaking writers he studied at Columbia University and Indiana University, and the heart is being,. ‘ ghazal on ghazals ’ and Begum Akhtar popularized the ghazal in first. Familiar old lime at the end banned from the first stanza what the repeating word is going to be be! And metaphysical questions of life as well as love and longing this form does not fifteen.
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