Running through the heart of New Zealand's glacier country is the infamous Alpine Fault. 0 Comments. The last earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in 1717. Different forecasts have put the probability of a future Alpine Fault quake measuring over 8.0 as high as 65 per cent within the next 50 years - and almost 85 per cent over 100 years. A rupture of the fault was therefore considered inevitable, with severe damage predicted to the built environment - especially to infrastructure. The white line is the contour where there was no change in height. The Alpine Fault ruptures—on average—every 330 years with a magnitude 8 earthquake. An earthquake early-warning system is conceivable for the South Island alpine fault and could give people 30 seconds to get out of buildings. The Alpine Fault marks the boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. Despite catastrophic damage in the city, its area of impact was about 50km. Magnitude 8 or larger, geologists said in a special edition of the New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics last year. [1], The Christchurch fault is believed to have been responsible for a series of earthquakes that rocked the city on Boxing Day of 2010. I felt the next Christchurch quake (22 February) while at work, and a few aftershocks as well. Page, Paul H. Denys, Chris F. Pearson, A geodetic study of the Alpine Fault through South Westland: using campaign GPS data to model slip rates on the Alpine Fault, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 10.1080/00288306.2018.1494006, 61, 3, (359-366), (2018). / Our Science Written by Geoff Chapple ISSUE 125 3). We expect that details of the fault location and slip distribution will be updated in the future, as we incorporate more data and use more sophisticated data analysis techniques. 30,000. All these cities have experienced severe earthquakes since European settlement. South of Ross, effectively all construction standards. Based on data from GPS stations, satellite radar images, seismographs and strong-motion recorders, the fault that caused the 22 February earthquake lies within about six kilometres of the city centre, along the southern edge of the city. The 2020 New Zealand Earthquake (pronounced "TWENTY-TWENTY", also known as the Alpine Fault Quake and the 2020 South Island Quake) is a magnitude 8.7 earthquake that will occur on the Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island at 11:31 (local) on Thursday, June 18th, 2020. the Farmy Army-800 farmers with machines. AF8 is focused on planning for this event in the South Island, but some North Island CDEM groups are also taking the Alpine Fault into account in their planning. 2 ALPINE FAULT EARTHQUAKE 2.1 Alpine Fault The Alpine Fault is the largest active fault in New Zealand and extends over 650km on land from Milford Sound to Blenheim. Presentation given in Christchurch in March 2015. It comes after scientists claimed the Alpine Fault is overdue for an earthquake that could reshape the South Island. The red star shows the location where the fault rupture started. distributed on faults within the Southern Alps and the remaining 5% (approximately) on faults within a broader region beneath the Canterbury Plains (Wallace et al., 2007). In 1873 a new resident architect, New Zealander Benjamin Mountfort, took over and construction began again. Mark Horstman heads to earthquake-ravaged Christchurch and meets the seismologists who are investigating the fault line that caused the damage. / Canterbury quake It was part of a swarm of tremors around Milford … tectonic plates, approximately 75%, is taken up on the Alpine Fault, approximately 20% . Away from the main plate boundary faults there are many smaller faults throughout Canterbury. A number of techniques were used to determine the fault’s position and movement. The contour lines indicate the amount (in mm) the land has risen (blue contours) or subsided (red contours) due to the slip on the fault. Australia gave. The way in which the Christchurch earthquake happened was due to the vibration of the ‘Alpine fault’ line which runs for around 600 km through Christchurch (Science, Alpine Fault, 2017). The Alpine Fault creates the earthquake by the opposite sides rubbing against each other after tension has built up between the two. Share. In between earthquakes, the Alpine Fault is locked. This raised part of the Port Hills and part of southern Christchurch. It is possible that a large Alpine Fault earthquake could also rupture the western part of some faults of the Marlborough Fault … The Christchurch Fault is an active seismic fault running under the city of Christchurch in the middle of New Zealand's South Island . Such a duration is comparable to the duration observed in Christchurch from the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake. 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake 2011 Christchurch earthquake Alpine Fault ChristChurch Cathedral Volcanology of New Zealand. However, the plates are locked and when they overcome these barriers, they produce large but … Just after midday on the 22 nd of February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck Christchurch, resulting in 185 deaths.. Seismologist Bill Fry, who is also part of the Resilience to Nature’s Challenges National Science Challenge, was on earthquake duty at GeoNet that day. Such a duration is comparable to the duration observed in Christchurch from the 2010 M27.1 Darfield earthquake. Canterbury earthquake. The fault is a strike-slip boundary in which the Australian Plate and the Pacific plate are moving horizontally past each other. Movement of land on either side of the fault plane was mixture of vertical motion and sideways slip (Fig. / Hidden fault. The September 4 earthquake, however, did not occur on the Alpine Fault. The Mw 6.2 Christchurch Earthquake of 22 February 2011 7 . Running through the heart of New Zealand’s glacier country is the infamous Alpine Fault. The suburbs of Heathcote and Redcliffs lie above the fault, resulting in heavy damage and extensive rockfalls. 2). Response spectra are very useful tools for analysing the seismic performance of structures. The fault is not a vertical cut through the earth, but rather it dips towards the south at an angle of about 65 degrees from the horizontal. How often does the Alpine Fault rupture? The rarest is from a major rupture of the Alpine Fault – around a magnitude 8 event. The main part of the fault thus lies beneath the northern edge of the Port Hills. The Alpine Fault runs northeast from the northern side of the entrance to Milford Sound, through the mountains behind Martins Bay, along the coast beneath the Southern Alps to … The hidden fault that caused the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. In fact, the Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600 kilometers through the South Island, suffered major eruptions in 1717, 1620, 1450, and 1100. Several faults are scattered across New Zealand’s South Island, and all are associated with the motion of the two tectonic plates. Scientists didn't know of. As a direct result of the fault slip, the Bexley, Aranui, Wainoni, Avondale and New Brighton areas have gone down, mostly by less than 15 centimetres. The fault, which runs about 600km up the western side of the South Island, poses one of the biggest natural threats to New Zealand. Domestic help from . This was one of the main faults that caused the Canterbury earthquake of 2010. The In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. The largest city within the highest-risk zone is the nation's capital, Wellington, followed by Hastings then Napier. The Alpine Fault runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, and is one of the world’s major geological features. Now we do. Chemical toilets provided for. However the modelled PGA from an Alpine Fault event … The faults are identifiable by the way they deform the ground. $5 million. The earthquake struck approximately 50 km to the west-northwest of Christchurch, the largest population center in the region, and about 80-90 km to the south and east of the current expression of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary through the island (the Alpine and Hope faults). An Alpine Fault rupture … The 2020 New Zealand Earthquake (pronounced "TWENTY-TWENTY", also known as the Alpine Fault Quake and the 2020 South Island Quake) is a magnitude 8.7 earthquake that will occur on the Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island at 11:31 (local) on Thursday, June 18th, 2020. The fault plane extends a few kilometres offshore, but not much fault movement occurred beneath the ocean. Alpine Fault. When I woke up to feel the first Christchurch earthquake (4 September 2010) my first thought after WTF was whether it was ‘the big one’ expected some time on the Alpine Fault. The coloured image shows an “interference pattern” derived from X-band radar images taken on 19 and 23 February 2011 by the Italian Cosmo-SkyMed satellite. A big quake on the Alpine Fault could block South Island highways in more than 120 places and leave 10,000 people cut off, new research has estimated. In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. North Canterbury residents will have a chance to hear from leading natural hazard scientist, Professor Tom Wilson of University Of Canterbury about the impacts and consequences of a future magnitude 8 earthquake along the Alpine Fault, and how people can become better prepared for it. The Alpine Fault creates the earthquake by the opposite sides rubbing against each other after tension has built up between the two. The 600 kilometer-long (370 mile) faultline on the boundary of the Eurasian and Pacific tectonic plates beneath the country’s South Island produces infrequent but significant earthquakes. 50-100 years to completely recover. The 2011 Christchurch earthquake, for example, was the result of a 16km fault rupture. The direction of movement—up and towards the northwest—focussed the energy of the earthquake towards Christchurch and helps explain the severe damage in the city. Chris J. In between earthquakes, the Alpine Fault is locked. For processing of the radar data: Mahdi Motagh. Figure 2: Diagram showing the amount and direction of slip of the rock between the two sides of the fault. The Christchurch Fault is an active seismic fault running under the city of Christchurch in the middle of New Zealand's South Island.. Compulsory READ: ALPINE FAULT RUPTURE: FACTS Page 3 / 5. fepixie, Jan 29, 11:38pm. It will be centred roughly 60km west of Queenstown, in the South Westland area. “I thought we’d dodged a bullet with the Darfield earthquake,” says Bill. Geologists and researchers agree an alpine fault earthquake poses the main seismic hazard in the South Island. "New Zealand has excellent earthquake standards in its building codes, but those standards were much more stringent on the Alpine fault to the west of Christchurch … The Darfield earthquake had a magnitude of M7.1. For CSK satellite radar data: e-GEOS, an ASI/Telespazio company, especially Andrea Celentano. / Recent Events “Just because we didn’t see it in that earthquake in the past, doesn’t mean we won’t see it in the future.” He applies the same caution to the next likely rupture of New Zealand’s largest fault, the Alpine Fault. The Port Hills have gone up by varying amounts, from about 5 centimetres under Lyttelton Harbour to a maximum of about 25 centimetres at the base of the hills near the Heathcote valley. Over the next few seconds the rupture spread upwards and towards the northwest, with the amount of slip increasing with time. Geologists and authorities are racing to quantify what might happen, and how they might respond in the event of the next one, likely to occur some time in the next 50 years. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11 …and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. The top of the fault lies at a depth of about a kilometre beneath the surface, and the rupture extends down along the fault plane for about seven kilometres. The greatest movement was upward and toward the northwest under the Avon-Heathcote estuary area. Canterbury. Figure 1: This Google map image shows the fault plane (rectangular area) across the southern part of Christchurch and northern Port Hills. He said it gave the most detailed information yet about the sort of impact a major Alpine Fault earthquake would have on different parts of the South Island. It happened along an east-west fault that had not been identified before. These four short videos explain why we are taking the Alpine Fault so seriously and help you understand how you can be prepared for the disruption to normal life that a severe earthquake will cause. Earthquakes happen when a fault suddenly breaks. The images can be combined to show the total amount of shift of the ground surface, both vertically and horizontally, caused by the earthquake (see Fig. The Hope Fault is an active dextral (right lateral) strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand.It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. Many Cantabrians and others in the central South Island, had assumed that because the Alpine Fault was more than 100km away shaking would not be strong, even in a large earthquake, he said. Our scientific understanding concerning the next large earthquake on the Alpine Fault, New Zealand. This type of fault motion is called reverse faulting. Kandahar, being located in south-eastern Afghanistan, is farther removed from tectonic movements in the northeast and is located well away from the Chaman fault, further decreasing its … The earthquakes on the Alpine Fault occurred at different times to the earthquakes on the southern Hikurangi Trench, showing that they were not one continuous earthquake rupture. Synthetic ground motions from the broadband simulations are generally consistent with PGAs estimated from GMPEs. It runs from an area close to Riccarton, under the Central City, through the eastern suburbs off the coast of New Brighton. When I woke up to feel the first Christchurch earthquake (4 September 2010) my first thought after WTF was whether it was ‘the big one’ expected some time on the Alpine Fault. Queenstown residents were woken up early on Sunday morning by a relatively shallow magnitude 5.5 tremor, centred just northeast of Milford Sound on the Alpine Fault. The duration of shaking is expected to last over 3 minutes for an Alpine fault earthquake and at least 20 seconds for a Hope fault earthquake. Rebuild. The next major rupture of the South Island's Alpine Fault will be one of the largest - if not the biggest - earthquake Kiwis have ever experienced. Earthquake hits South Island's Alpine Fault; How large? The devastating earthquake that tore through Christchurch on Tuesday is the product of a new fault line in the Earth’s crust that seismologists were previously unaware of. However, there may be additional subsidence as a result of ground compaction and liquefaction during the strong shaking. 100% (1/1) B.W Mountfort. The rupture will produce one of the biggest earthquakes since European settlement of New Zealand, and it will have a major impact on the lives of many people. Brendon Bradley, professor in earthquake engineering at the University of Canterbury, has created a computer simulation of the likely impact of a magnitude 8 earthquake on the Alpine Fault. The rock on the south side of the fault has moved up and westward by as much as 2.5 metres relative to the rock on the north side of the fault. When I woke up to feel the first Christchurch earthquake (4 September 2010) my first thought after WTF was whether it was ‘the big one’ expected some time on the Alpine Fault. Fault slip comes to within one kilometre of the ground surface. For GPS data: LINZ, especially Josh Thomas and Dave Collett; GeoNet; Geosystems/Trimble New Zealand; Global Survey; Andersen & Associates, especially Brent George; Christchurch City Council; Otago University. Large earthquakes are less common along the central Alpine Fault, where the plates are not subducting and the forces are accommodated in different ways. I felt the next Christchurch quake (22 February) while at work, and a few aftershocks as well. 50%g respectively during an Alpine fault earthquake, while ground motions in Christchurch are expected to be moderate, with peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 8%g expected from an Alpine event and 6%g from a Hope fault event. The block of land south of the fault slid up the fault surface by as much as 2.5 metres on the section of fault near the Avon-Heathcote estuary. It runs virtually the whole length of the West Coast Region, with the high mountains to its east and the lower hill lands and alluvial flats to its west. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. It runs parallel to the more destructive Port Hills Fault that lies 5 km to the south of the Christchurch Fault. CTV building didn't meet. The Christchurch Fault is an active seismic fault running under the city of Christchurch in the middle of New Zealand's South Island. "Christchurch has never been identified as a major earthquake zone, because no one knew this fault ran beneath," says a seismologist at the British Geological Survey. Movement was modelled using the ground shaking recorded during the earthquake by “strong-motion” seismometers. There are three major known earthquake threat sources to Christchurch – and although all differ in their magnitude and distance from the city, all are expected to result in around the same amount of ground shaking. It will be centred roughly 60km west of Queenstown, in the South Westland area. Just as the Kaikōura earthquake in 2016 had a significant impact on Wellington, we expect that when the Alpine Fault ruptures in a large magnitude earthquake it will be widely felt across the lower North Island. Photo: Getty Images. The nearest fault, the Alpine Fault, lies many hundreds of miles to the west, in — as the name suggests — the Southern Alps. The 3.24am quake was 5km deep and reported by more than 600 people around Queenstown and Wanaka. Colours on the fault plane indicate the amount of slip between the two sides of the fault (see Fig. The Canterbury Plains could suffer more damage in an Alpine Fault quake than some areas closer to the fault, say researchers - and it is not alone. [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. When the Alpine Fault next ruptures it is likely to produce an earthquake with a magnitude of around 8. Duration: 10min … This video shows another validation case to test our Bullet Constraints Builder add-on for Blender with as part of our research. Home At 3 AM on May 29, 2013, the South Island’s technological uncon­scious roars […] Geologists and authorities are racing to quantify what might happen, and how they might respond in the event of the next one, likely to occur some time in the next 50 years. Both earthquakes were less than 50 km from the Christchurch central business area and had a magnitude that is much smaller than that expected from the Alpine fault (Mw=8.2) and that is similar to a potential Hope fault event (Mw7+). Because the fault doesn’t break the surface, the land overlying the top of the fault has been slightly folded, with the south side warped upward and the north side down (see Fig. The land has gone up as much as 40 centimetres around the western side of the Avon-Heathcote estuary. The Alpine Fault can produce magnitude 8 earthquakes and does so about every 300 to 350 years. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. In fact, the Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600 kilometers through the South Island, suffered major eruptions in 1717, 1620, 1450, and 1100. These instruments are designed specifically for recording strong ground shaking. / Natural Hazards and Risks This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. In the line of fire is the small town of Franz Josef, just 5 kilometers (3 miles) from the often-visited Franz Josef glacier in … Relative to the fault, the land north of the fault shifted eastward while the land to the south of the fault shifted westward. The Alpine Fault has a high probability (estimated at 30%) of rupturing in the next 50 years. Thherewill be no Tsunami in nz if the Alpine goes as it is a *Landbased* fault line. Both Dunedin and Christchurch are likely to experience shaking and liquefaction in low-lying areas,” Dr. Orchiston said. The Alpine Fault, running up the South Island, has an earthquake nearly every 300 years. It runs from an area close to Riccarton, under the Central City, through the eastern suburbs off the coast of New Brighton.It runs parallel to the more destructive Port Hills Fault that lies 5 km to the south of the Christchurch Fault. The fault rupture (Fig. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami and the 2011 liquefaction of buildings in Christchurch … This is called a ‘Transform boundary’. electricity returned to 75% of the city. 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