Of the 50 dogs, 35 completed the trial through 4 months or 2 successive examinations with negative skin scrapings. advantus™ contains 7.5 mg or 37.5 mg of imidacloprid. 6. Should re-treatment be necessary earlier than four weeks, do not treat more frequently than weekly. Use: advantus™ kills adult fleas and is indicated for the treatment of flea infestations on dogs and puppies 10 weeks of age and older and weighing 4 pounds or greater. Case number 7605. epa.gov/sites/production/files/2020-01/documents/imidacloprid_pid_signed_1.22.2020.pdf. Reg. Another study evaluated efficacy of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% topical solution for treating cheyletiellosis (walking dandruff) in dogs. Chemical compatibility and safety of imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®) concomitantly used with imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi) and emodepside/praziquantel (Profender®) spot-on formulations. plumbsveterinarydrugs.com/#!/monograph/c4yrPefM0v. Although imidacloprid products are generally considered to be well-tolerated, they have the potential to exacerbate gallbladder mucocele formation in Shetland sheepdogs. Imidacloprid: proposed interim registration review decision. An external application, supplied as a topical/spot-on solution. found that among Shetland sheepdogs, those with gallbladder mucoceles were 9.3 times more likely than controls to have reportedly received imidacloprid. An often-overlooked aspect of parasite prevention is the effect that these insecticides can have on nontarget organisms, ecosystems, and the environment. Imidacloprid is a broad-spectrum insecticide and lousicide used to control fleas in dogs and cats, and lice in dogs. Another study compared the efficacy of topical fipronil and imidacloprid when used on 23 dogs in flea-infested homes.4 Treatments were administered once monthly for 3 months, and flea counts were assessed for the animals and the residences. Although imidacloprid is approved and indicated for the removal and control of fleas, it has often been used in an extra-label manner to treat other similar parasitic conditions. Imidacloprid, the medication paired with topical moxidectin, begins to kill fleas within 4 hours. How it Works: Advantus Oral Flea Treatment Capsules for Dogs contain Imidacloprid, which safely and effectively kills fleas within one hour of administration and is 96% effective against adult fleas within 4 hours.The capsule is easy to give to your dog and may be given as an occasional dose when you see fleas on your pet or daily if necessary. Dryden MW, Denenberg TM, Bunch S, et al. The product is bitter tasting and salivation may occa­sionally occur if the dog licks the application site immediately after treatment. A Suicide Support Resource for Veterinary Workplaces. 33 Rats were fed imidacloprid for 18 or 24 months at unspecified concentrations. 8. Do not allow recently treated animals to groom each other. (2.5 mg/kg) moxidectin based on body weight. Commercially available topical formulations of fipronil (Frontline Top Spot for dogs, 9.7% wt:wt, Rhône Merieux, Athens, GA) and imidacloprid (Advantage Flea Adulticide [for dogs], 9.1% wt:wt, Bayer Animal Health) for flea control on domestic dogs and cats were used on squirrels. Accessed July 2020. Efficacy of imidacloprid 10 per cent/moxidectin 2.5 per cent spot-on in the treatment of cheyletiellosis in dogs. Method of application. Advantage 100 is a flea control product. Gookin JL, Correa MT, Peters A, et al. To aid reduction in environmental challenge, the additional use of a suitable environmental treatment against adult fleas and developing stages is recommended. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide, approved for use in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1994. Dr. Allinder received her Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy in 2020. 13. For example, Advantage Multi is a prescription treatment that uses the active ingredients imidacloprid and moxidectin to kill heartworms, hookworms, whipworms, roundworms, sarcoptic mange mites and fleas. The formulation and dosage schedule are designed to provide a minimum of 4.5 mg/lb. A particular concern expressed by the Environmental Protection Agency is that “imidacloprid is classified as very highly toxic to adult honeybees.”1   An association between agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticides and honeybee failure and colony collapse has been documented.6 Residues have also been found in crop soil and in aquatic ecosystems, affecting their structure and function.6 Therefore, to minimize environmental risk when using these products for flea prevention and treatment, care should be taken to follow all directions on product labels. Imidacloprid causes overstimulation of the flea's nervous system, causing a spastic paralysis and then death. Efficacy at 8 hours after treatment was 100% for nitenpyram, 95.7% for imidacloprid, 74.4% for selamectin, and 46.5% for fipronil. For active flea infestations, initial treatment with imidacloprid may be oral or topical. Advantage for Dogs is used for the prevention and treatment of flea infestations and for the treatment of biting lice (Trichodectes canis) on dogs. Treats, prevents and controls lice infestations.Safe to use for dogs and puppies 7 weeks and older. During the first 30 minutes after application, monitor to ensure that your dog does not lick the product. Although several options are also available for cats, the focus of this article is imidacloprid efficacy for the control of fleas on dogs. Imidacloprid has been approved by the EPA for use on dogs and will kill fleas already on your dog within 12 hours of application. Shawnee Mission, KS: Bayer; 2016. bayer.cvpservice.com/product/basic/view/1040184. The product remains effective if the animal becomes wet, for example after exposure to heavy rain or after swimming (dogs). Apply topical solutions directly to the skin and allow them to dry thoroughly before the dog comes into contact with other pets or children. Topical administration of imidacloprid is generally considered to be well tolerated. Each pipette contains 0.4 ml (40 mg imidacloprid) and 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) as a...[More info], Advantage 250 Flea Treatment for dogs contains 2.5 ml (250 mg imidacloprid) and 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) as a preservative. Imidacloprid: proposed interim registration review decision. One treatment prevents further flea infestation for up to four weeks on dogs, treatment should be repeated after four weeks. Imidacloprid, systemic. Neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid can potentially enter the soil and water and negatively affect the environment. Advantage 250 Flea Treatment for dogs contains 2.5 ml (250 mg imidacloprid) and 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) as a preservative. Dr. Sorah now serves as Director of Clinical Pharmacy Services at NC State College of Veterinary Medicine. Do not apply an excessive amount of solution at any one spot that could cause some of the solution to run down the side of the dog. It is often combined with other ingredients including Permethrin or Moxidectin to treat ticks, mites or internal parasites. To aid reduction in environmental challenge, the additional use of a suitable environmental treatment against adult fleas and developing stages is recommended. In some circumstances, it may be appropriate to treat dogs with more than one product to prevent fleas, ticks, heartworms, and intestinal parasites. It is supplied as a topical solution that collects in the oils of the skin and in hair follicles. doi: 10.1007/s00436-015-4514-z, 12. Shawnee Mission, KS: Bayer; 2013. bayer.cvpservice.com/product/basic/view/1040066. Do not allow recently treated animals to groom each other.No reproductive toxic effects have been observed in rats and no primary embryotoxic or teratogenic toxic effects have been observed during the studies on rats and rabbits. Apply only to undamaged skin. To prevent future infestations, use in conjunction with a preventive product. 1. Start to kill adult fleas within 1 hour. Studies on pregnant and lactating bitches, queens and does together with their offspring are limited. With the dog in the standing position, part the coat between the shoulder blades until the skin is visible. Fleas are killed within one day following treatment. Place the tip of the tube on the skin and gently squeeze the tube to expel a portion of its contents directly onto the skin. In 2009, a blinded, randomized clinical trial compared efficacy of 2 products for treatment of demodicosis. Shawnee Mission, KS: Bayer; 2016. bayer.cvpservice.com/product/basic/view/1040184. The dog should be standing for easy application. One study involving 32 dogs compared the kill speeds of nitenpyram, selamectin, imidacloprid, and fipronil. Advantage Multi® for Dogs (10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin) is a colorless to yellow ready-to-use solution packaged in single dose applicator tubes for topical treatment of dogs. Accessed July 2020. In some circumstances, it may be appropriate to treat dogs with more than one product to prevent fleas, ticks, heartworms, and intestinal parasites. Convenient, easy to apply topical solution. Do not treat unweaned puppies of less than 8 weeks of age. Association of gallbladder mucocele histologic diagnosis with selected drug use in dogs: a matched case-control study. Place the tip of the tube on the skin and gently squeeze the tube to expel a portion of its contents directly onto the skin. Each packet contains four pipettes covering four months of flea treatments at a very cost effective price. Treatment of canine-generalized demodicosis: a blind, randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of Advocate® (Bayer Animal Health) with ivermectin. In order to reduce further the environmental challenge, it is recommended that all cats, dogs and rabbits in the household are treated. When applied topically to dogs, imidacloprid is distributed across the skin by translocation and can be found in hair follicles, shed hair, and sebum.7 In dogs, systemic absorption of topical preparations seems to be minimal to none. Use reversed cap to twist and remove seal from tube. This is not a sign of intoxication and disappears within some minutes without treatment. Oral administration has been associated with vomiting, decreased appetite, lethargy, and diarrhea/soft stools. Three dogs were presented with a history of oral administration of a topical endectocide containing imidacloprid and moxidectin. Control of fleas on naturally infested dogs and cats and in private residences with topical spot applications of fipronil or imidacloprid. The dog should be standing for easy application. 10. Advantage Multi® for Dogs (10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin) is a colorless to yellow ready-to-use solution packaged in single dose applicator tubes for topical treatment of dogs. Gookin JL, Correa MT, Peters A, et al. A particular concern expressed by the Environmental Protection Agency is that “imidacloprid is classified as very highly toxic to adult honeybees.”, In a blinded, randomized controlled efficacy study, 29 dogs with. Correct applica­tion will minimize the opportunity for the dog to lick the product. The neonicotinoids act on nicotinic receptors in insects and vertebrates. Vet Dermatol 2009;20(5-6):447–455. The mechanism of action of imidacloprid is unique, differing from that of other insecticides (e.g., organophosphates, insect growth regulators) in that insect receptors are more sensitive than mammalian receptors to imidacloprid.5 This property was originally thought to make imidacloprid more advantageous than other commonly used agricultural insecticides on the market at the time, thereby limiting toxicity and negative effects on other organisms;6 however, we now know that this class of insecticides could have significant environmental effects. The recommended minimum dose is 4.5 mg/lb. Advantus [package insert]. (2.5 mg/kg) moxidectin, once a month, by topical administration. Loft KE, Willesen JL. Overview of Imidacloprid for Canines and Felines Imidacloprid, better know as Advantage® or K9 Advantix®, is an insecticidal agent for dogs that acts on the central nervous system of insects causing impairment and subsequent death. doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.12.004. visible; on or after day 60, no mites or eggs were detected. One such study showed no dermal or systemic safety issues when imidacloprid topical solution was used along with an imidacloprid-containing collar.11 However, in the absence of other studies or evidence, use of products with the same active ingredient or mechanism of action should be avoided. Plumb DC. Hold the tube in an upright position, twist and pull off cap. 3. She is currently completing a clinical veterinary pharmacy residency at the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine. 9. Vet Parasitol 2003;112(3):249–254. animaldrugsatfda.fda.gov/adafda/views/#/home/previewsearch/141-435. Do not apply to puppies or dogs weighing less than 11 lbs. Each tube contains 0.4 ml (40 mg imidacloprid), 1 ml (100 mg imidacloprid), 2.5 ml (250 mg imidacloprid) and 4.0 ml (400 mg imidacloprid) respectively plus benzyl alcohol and butylhydroxytoluene (E321) as an antioxidant.Advantage for Dogs is used for the prevention and treatment of flea infestations and for the treatment of biting lice (Trichodectes canis) on dogs. She subsequently began a clinical veterinary pharmacy residency at the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine. A topically applied formulation containing 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (Advocate/Advantage multi) has been developed for monthly application to dogs for the prevention of canine heartworm (HW) disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis; and for the treatment and control of flea infestations, mite in … Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. After day 22, no Sarcoptes mites were found on skin scrapings from any dogs in either treatment group. Imidacloprid is also them main active ingredient in three out of the four most popular preventative topical flea treatments for dogs in the US. Combination products containing permethrins should not be used on cats, and caution should be taken with use of these products on dogs in households with cats to ensure that the cats are not exposed through grooming or rubbing. 11. However, its use as monotherapy does not completely prevent infection with other parasites (e.g., heartworms and intestinal parasites). The doses depend on the weight of the cat or dog. With so many brands and choices of topical flea and tick medicines for dogs on the market, deciding on the most suitable and best flea treatment for your dog is no easy task. Miticidal efficacy of fluralaner was 99.7% at day 28, >99.9% at day 56, and 100% at day 84, whereas efficacy of imidacloprid/moxidectin was 9.8% at day 28, 45.4% at day 56, and 0% at day 84.15. US Environmental Protection Agency. According to the product label, the oral formulation of imidacloprid may be used concomitantly with other medications (i.e., corticosteroids and antibiotics).5,10 Because topically applied imidacloprid is not absorbed systemically, no significant drug–drug interactions have been associated with topical administration of imidacloprid.9. Fourie J, Meyer L, Thomas E. Efficacy of topically administered fluralaner or imidacloprid/moxidectin on dogs with generalised demodicosis. Vet Parasitol 2000;93(1):69–75. Overdose is rare and no adverse effects have been reported at even up to 5 times the recommended dose. An often-overlooked aspect of parasite prevention is the effect that these insecticides can have on nontarget organisms, ecosystems, and the environment. More than one treatment may therefore be required, depending on the level of fleas in the environment. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide, approved for use in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1994. According to the product label, the oral formulation of imidacloprid may be used concomitantly with other medications (i.e., corticosteroids and antibiotics). IMOXI™ Topical Solution for Dogs (10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin) is a colorless to yellow ready-to-use solution packaged in single dose applicator tubes for topical treatment of dogs. Fourie J, Meyer L, Thomas E. Efficacy of topically administered fluralaner or imidacloprid/moxidectin on dogs with generalised demodicosis. Loft KE, Willesen JL. However, re-treatment may become necessary, depending on the presence of fleas in the environment. This drug should only be used in dogs after a negative heartworm test. Imidacloprid acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic membranes in the flea, blocking acetylcholine and eventually leading to central nervous system impairment and death. In two previous studies, similar proportions of dogs (18% and 14.3%) did not reach parasitological cure after two monthly topical treatments with moxidectin/imidacloprid. Imidacloprid is a topical agent and temporary irritation at the site of application is possible. Topical administration of imidacloprid is generally considered to be well tolerated. The product is bitter tasting and salivation may occa­sionally occur if the dog licks the application site immediately after treatment. In the case of biting louse infection in dogs, a veterinary examination 30 days after treatment is recommended as some animals may require a second treatment. 6. Cefovecin Sodium for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections, Carprofen for Dogs: Osteoarthritis and Pain Management. She also serves as an adjunct professor, teaching veterinary pharmacology at Campbell University School of Pharmacy and UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy. Advantage 40 for Dogs should be used for small dogs weight up to 4Kg, Advantage 100 for Dogs should be used for dogs weighing up to 10Kg, Advantage 250 for Dogs should be used for dogs weighing up to 25Kg and Advantage 400 for Dogs should be used for dogs weighting up to 40Kg. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(00)00318-6. With the dog in the standing position, part the coat between the shoulder blades until the skin is visible. Imidacloprid and moxidectin is available as a topical solution and typically comes in an applicator tube. Newer agents, however, may prove to be more efficacious in the treatment of demodicosis when given at labeled dosing frequencies. 8. Do not treat unweaned puppies of less than 8 weeks of age. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2012;42(2):335–347. Advantage for Dogs is a monthly application which will rid your dog of fleas within a day. Neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid can potentially enter the soil and water and negatively affect the environment. She then completed the clinical veterinary pharmacy residency program at NC State College of Veterinary Medicine before accepting a staff pharmacist position. Dosage and side effects for dogs and cats. 2 Imidacloprid is indicated for the treatment of fleas (adult and larval stages) on dogs and cats; it is often combined with other therapies to treat … Efficacy in dogs treated topically with the imidacloprid and moxidectin combination, was 9.8% at Day 28, 45.4% at Day 56 and 0% at Day 84, and was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than the fluralaner treated group at each post-treatment time point. Do not apply an excessive amount of solution at any one spot, as that could cause some of the product to run down the animals side. Its penetration of the blood–brain barrier is poor, which leads to a more favorable safety profile. However, its use as monotherapy does not completely prevent infection with other parasites (e.g., heartworms and intestinal parasites).3 Patients should be evaluated to ensure that they are receiving complete parasite prevention regimens with or without imidacloprid augmentation. 15. Apply only to undamaged skin. It is a safe and effective topical product for the control of fleas in cats and dogs.. Clinical signs were nearly entirely resolved by 50 to 64 days after the initial treatment. Aust Vet J 2006;84(1-2):17–21. Another study compared the efficacy of topical fipronil and imidacloprid when used on 23 dogs in flea-infested homes. The mechanism of action of imidacloprid is unique, differing from that of other insecticides (e.g., organophosphates, insect growth regulators) in that insect receptors are more sensitive than mammalian receptors to imidacloprid. Veterinary School Applications Are Up 19% — What Does that Mean for the Profession? Advantus (imidacloprid) Oral Dog Flea Treatment, Soft Flea Chews for Dogs 23-110 lbs, 30 doses 4.3 out of 5 stars 1,395 K9 advantix II Flea and Tick Prevention for Medium Dogs, 11-20 Pounds Use reversed cap to twist and remove seal from tube. Dogs included in the study were mostly mongrels and of both sexes, older than 12 months, weighed between 3.5 and 13.7 kg, and except for clinical signs of generalized demodicosis, the dogs were healthy and as far as could be determined the dogs had not been treated with a glucocorticoid or any product with a miticidal effect for at least 12 weeks prior to inclusion. Imidacloprid's mode of action is … When administered orally, imidacloprid is absorbed rapidly and nearly completely from the dog’s gastrointestinal tract and reaches effective concentration after about 1.3 hours.7 It is distributed throughout the tissues but does not accumulate in the tissues. Case number 7605. epa.gov/sites/production/files/2020-01/documents/imidacloprid_pid_signed_1.22.2020.pdf, 5. 2. Uses of Imidacloprid. Advantage Multi ® (imidacloprid + moxidectin) provides broad-spectrum parasite protection in a convenient monthly topical application, potentially increasing compliance for dogs and cats that may not prefer oral medications. Plumb DC. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(02)00425-9, 4. Use a long-lasting and effective form of pest control available at Petco. US Environmental Protection Agency. In 2009, a blinded, randomized clinical trial compared efficacy of 2 products for treatment of demodicosis.14 A total of 50 dogs with demodicosis received either ivermectin daily or imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% topical solution applied monthly, every 2 weeks, or weekly. It is also used in combination with other medications to treat other parasites such as ticks, mosquitoes, chewing lice, heartworms, hookworms, roundworms, whipworms, scabies, cheyletiellosis, demodex, or ear … Apply by removing one tube from the package. Advantage...[More info]. Pertinent clinical considerations should be made before use is recommended in animals that are debilitated, aged, pregnant, nursing, or receiving medication. Imidacloprid to treat fleas and lice, found in Advantage, Advantix and Seresto. The entire contents of the tube should be applied evenly to 3 or 4 spots all located at different application sites along the dog's back line from the shoulder to the base of the tail. In these cases do not treat more frequently than once weekly. Front Environ Sci 2016;4:71. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2016.00071, 7. Advantage Flea Control for Dogs and Cat. Advantage [package insert]. When topical formulations of imidacloprid are used, the veterinarian should consult individual product labels to be able to counsel clients on accurate restrictions, such as shampooing and water immersion. In the case of biting louse infection in dogs, a veterinary examination 30 days after treatment is recommended as some animals may require a second treatment.Apply by removing one tube from the package. The formulation and dosage schedule are designed to provide a minimum of 4.5 mg/lb (10 mg/kg) imidacloprid and 1.1 mg/lb (2.5 mg/kg) moxidectin based on body weight. Imidacloprid collars provide up to 8 months of protection from fleas and ticks; however, consider replacing collars more frequently for dogs that are frequently immersed in water. (10 mg/kg) imidacloprid and 1.1 mg/lb. When administered orally, imidacloprid is absorbed rapidly and nearly completely from the dog’s gastrointestinal tract and reaches effective concentration after about 1.3 hours. Indicated for the prevention and control treatment of...[More info], Advantage 100 Flea Treatment for dogs contains 1.0 ml (100 mg imidacloprid) and 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) as a preservative. Although duplicate therapy to provide full preventive coverage against fleas, ticks, and heartworms should be avoided, some products have been studied in combination and shown to be safe. A single topical application of 10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin topical solution (Advantage Multi® for Dogs) administered per label 30 days prior to challenge was 100% efficacious in preventing the development of third-stage larvae of the Missouri isolate of D. immitis in dogs. Evidence so far indicates that no adverse effects are to be expected in these animals. Sánchez-Bayo F, Goka K, Hayasaka D. Contamination of the aquatic environment with neonicotinoids and its implication for ecosystems. 10. Do not apply an excessive amount of solution at any one spot that could cause some of the solution to run down the side of the dog. Although duplicate therapy to provide full preventive coverage against fleas, ticks, and heartworms should be avoided, some products have been studied in combination and shown to be safe. Wismer T, Means C. Toxicology of newer insecticides in small animals. Studies on pregnant and lactating bitches, queens and does together with their offspring are limited. When topical formulations of imidacloprid are used, the veterinarian should consult individual product labels to be able to counsel clients on accurate restrictions, such as shampooing and water immersion, before and after application of these products (TABLE 2). A variety of flea drops for dogs contain the active ingredients imidacloprid or fipronil. In a blinded, randomized controlled efficacy study, 29 dogs with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation received either an imidacloprid (10% w/v)/moxidectin (2.5% w/v) combination topically or selamectin topically.12 Dogs in each group received 2 treatments, 4 weeks apart. Dispose of packaging according to label recommendations. Registered with the R.C.V.S. The efficacy of an imidacloprid/moxidectin combination against naturally acquired Sarcoptes scabiei infestations on dogs. Parasit Vectors 2019 25;12(1):59. doi:10.1186/s13071- It is applied topically and will spread through your dog’s hair follicles and onto their skin, protecting them from fleas for up to one month. Copyright © 2021 Today's Veterinary Practice. This is not a sign of intoxication and disappears within some minutes without treatment. Advantage 40mg  for Small Dogs, Advantage 100 for Dogs, Advantage 250 for Dogs and Advantage 400 for Dogs are all clear yellow to slightly brownish solutions containing as active substance imidacloprid. Web Design by PHOS Creative, https://todaysveterinarypractice.com/table-of-contents-january-february-2021/. Comparative speed of kill between nitenpyram, fipronil, imidacloprid, selamectin and cythioate against adult Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) on cats and dogs. plumbsveterinarydrugs.com/#!/monograph/c4yrPefM0v. and the V.M.D. Pertinent clinical considerations should be made before use is recommended in animals that are debilitated, aged, pregnant, nursing, or receiving medication.9. Reported adverse effects associated with oral administration include vomiting, decreased appetite, lethargy, diarrhea or soft feces, and difficulty walking. Hold the tube in an upright position, twist and pull off cap. This prevents the animal from ingesting the medication by licking. Advantus [package insert]. Clients should be mindful that permethrins can be toxic to cats. Fleas are killed within one day following treatment. Imidacloprid acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic membranes in the flea, blocking acetylcholine and eventually leading to central nervous system impairment and death. Oral administration of imidacloprid at labeled doses is also considered to be well tolerated. Oral administration of imidacloprid at labeled doses is also considered to be well tolerated. Parasitol Res 2015;114(Suppl 1):S55-S80. For immediate treatment of flea infestation, give imidacloprid soft chews once daily, as needed, based on weight. No. The entire contents of the tube should be applied evenly to 3 or 4 spots all located at different application sites along the dog's back line from the shoulder to the base of the tail. 7. In these cases do not treat more frequently than once weekly. Efficacy of imidacloprid 10 per cent/moxidectin 2.5 per cent spot-on in the treatment of cheyletiellosis in dogs. Methods: Two … In a recent (2019) study, 16 dogs with naturally acquired demodicosis were randomized to receive 1 treatment of topical fluralaner or 3 treatments of topical imidacloprid/moxidectin at 4-week intervals (or weekly for some with severe cases). Researchers concluded that Scottish terriers treated with topical flea and tick products, including those containing imidacloprid, did not have a greater risk of developing urinary bladder cancer compared with control dogs. These topical treatments are easy to use and provide 30 days of continuous protection. Advantage 40 Flea Treatment should be used for smaller cats, small dogs and rabbits. No reproductive toxic effects have been observed in rats and no primary embryotoxic or teratogenic toxic effects have been observed during the studies on rats and rabbits. Wismer T, Means C. Toxicology of newer insecticides in small animals. Place the tip of the tube on the skin and squeeze firmly several times to empty the contents directly onto the skin. Therefore, to help you I have put together this guide, to aid you in making the right choice during this all … Dr. Sorah received her Doctor of Pharmacy degree from East Tennessee State University Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy in 2014. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide, approved for use in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1994.1 It is available as a topical formulation and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an oral chewable formulation in 2015.2 Imidacloprid is indicated for the treatment of fleas (adult and larval stages) on dogs and cats; it is often combined with other therapies to treat intestinal parasites, repel ticks, and prevent heartworm infection (TABLE 1). Areas may appear wet or oily for up to 24 hours School of Pharmacy degree from Medical. 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