FEMS Microbiol Ecol 39:91–100, Loy A, Lehner A, Lee N, Adamczyk J, Meier H, Ernst J, Schleifer K-H, Wagner M (2002) Oligonucleotide microarray for 16S rRNA gene-based detection of all recognized lineages of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in the environment. Helicobactor pylori is a gram-negative bacteria that produces acetate. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 30:137–145, Forsberg CW, Beveridge TJ, Hellstrom A (1981) Cellulase and xylanase release from Bacteroides succinogenes and its importance in the rumen environment. Erster Bericht. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:983–989, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. A. ROSEMBERG Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, National School of Chemistry, University ofBrazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Received for publication 13 July 1965 ABSTRACT ROSEMBERG, J. of jute fiber [23].Although retting is a crucial step for the production of fiber bundles, the available reports on the bacterial communities in the retting environments are scarce,with most literature com-ing from flax [24–27] and jute retting [20, 28].The current knowledge of the microbial community is Cult. C. Helicobacter pylori. Join . Correspondence to Econ Bot 19, 384–393 (1965). Maneval, W. E. 1930. Efficient pectinolytic microbial inocula with low cellulolytic activity can improve fibre quality, reduce the time of retting and evade environmental pollution that arises due to retting. Aquat Microb Ecol 31:211–225. These retting bacteria were already incorporated in the microbial consortium, called “CRIJAF Sona” developed by ICAR-CRIJAF. challenge facing the kenaf and jute growers. Jute retting can be done by microbial or chemical process. Anonymous. Breed, R. S., Murray, E. G. D., and Smith, N. R. 1957. Online J Biol Sci 1:685–688, Altschul S, Gish W, Miller E, Lipman D (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. Retting of Fibers • Bacteria (e.g. This project was funded by the grants from Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. Prospects of chemical retting of jute. Sci.16 (v): 453–458. aeruginosa. However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. Brilliere, Tyndal & Cox, Ltd., London. All bacterial isolates isolated from jute retting water do not have pectinolytic activity, but some important species among them shows this ability. 1944. Leather industry (Tannery): • In leather industry, removal of hairs, fats and other tissues from raw hide is done by bacteria. All retting methods except chemical and mechanical retting processes are involving secretion of enzymes by bacteria or fungi under controlled (enzymatic … Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. Methophilic bacteria found in cold methane seeps forms a symbiotic relationship with deep-sea invertebrates. Microb Ecol 56, 270–282 (2008). A. J Bacteriol 180:4765–4774, Hughes JB, Hellmann JJ, Ricketts TH, Bohannan BJM (2001) Counting the uncountable: statistical approaches to estimating microbial diversity. Part of Springer Nature. Water retting is a wet process by which the bundles of cells in the outer layers of the stalk are separated from non-fibrous matter by the removal of pectins and other gummy substances (Zhang, 2003). cereus, one strain ofB. Google Scholar, Manz W, Amann R, Ludwig W, Wagner M, Schleifer K-H (1992) Phylogenetic oligodeoxynucleotide probes for the major subclasses of Proteobacteria: problems and solutions. • The fibres are then mechanically extracted, washed, dried and marketed. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Ahmed Z, Akhter F (2001) Jute retting: An overview. Bacteria and fungi act upon the soft tissues of the stem, which on dissolution makes it easy to separate the fibre from the core (stick). Google Scholar. Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens. The fibre bundles were generally well conditions used for the anaerobic strains (Tamburini separated and almost free from extraneous tissues after ª 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ª 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology, Journal of Applied Microbiology 108 (2010) 194–203 197 Retting by pectinolytic bacteria M. Di Candilo et al. For retting of jute the fermenting microbe used is ️ Butyric acid bacteria 1.0 1 vote 1 vote Rate! These include the soil, retting, and jute genotype. Jour. Ed. There is a little evidence on the record that aerobic bacteria take active part in the retting of jute and allied fibre plants (Ali et al., 1972; Alam and Asaduzzaman, 1993; Haque et al., 1992). Centre for Genome Research, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology Center, Faculty of Science, M. S. University of Baroda, Baroda, Gujarat, 390002, India, You can also search for this author in 0 0. Answer. The bulk of clones came from Proteobacteria (∼37, 41%) and a comparatively smaller proportion of clones from the divisions—Firmicutes (∼11, 12%), Cytophaga–Flexibacter–Bacteroidetes group (CFB; ∼9, 7%), Verrucomicrobia (∼6, 5%), Acidobacteria (∼4, 5%), Chlorobiales (∼5, 5%), and Actinobacteria (∼4, 2%) were identified. In order to evaluate the pollution level in wastewater sample, the major water quality parameters that were determined in this study included BOD5, COD, color, turbidity, etc. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9345-8. However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. Agric. They probably enter stems over the whole surface through stomata, as well as through cut ends and leaf scars, after immersion for retting. Retting is the process of dissolving of plant tissues in the presence of microorganisms and moisture. Ribbon retting of jute—a prospective and eco-friendly method for improvement of fibre quality Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, West Bengal, India, pp 13–61, Manz W, Amann R, Ludwig W, Vancanneyt M, Schleifer K-H (1996) Application of a suite of 16S rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes designed to investigate bacteria of the phylum cytophaga-flavobacter-bacteroides in the natural environment. 1950–54. Not all bacteria isolated fromretted jute are responsible for theprocess, as for instance, seven species of aerobic bacteria were isolated fromretted jute but only oneof them, B. poly- … Taihoku Imperial Univ. The staining of flagella of bacteria with special reference to mordants. C. Helicobacter pylori. However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. J Bacteriol 183:3134–3141, Rohlf FJ (1993) NTSYS-PC: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System—version 2.0. MEDIUM. We studied the eff ect of diff erent pH of the enzyme assay media and diff erent carbon sources in the culture media, under laboratory conditions, on enzyme activities like, PG, PNL, xylanase, and cellulase of some pectinolytic bacterial strains isolated from jute retting water bodies. A process called retting is used to remove the non-fibrous material from the stem and skin of the jute stalk. Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved withBacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. CAS  The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. Still have questions? In addition, 32 bacterial species were isolated on culture media from the two retting environments and identified by 16S rDNA analysis, confirming the presence of phyla, Proteobacteria (∼47%), Firmicutes (∼22%), CFB group (∼19%), and Actinobacteria (∼13%) in the retting niche. Retting is a microbial process by which the fibre from the woody core (stick) is loosened. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425, Sanno A, Tas J-P, Pippola S, Lindstrom K, van Elsas JD (1995) Extraction and analysis of microbial DNA from soil. Biochemical investigations on jute retting. robic bacteria from the jute retting water and retted jute stem. luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9345-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9345-8, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Why the process of retting is needed in process of harvesting jute? Munshi, T.K., Chattoo, B.B. Microbiol. Percent coverage value and diversity estimations of phylotype richness, Shannon–Weiner index, and evenness confirmed the diverse nature of both the libraries. Article  Retting operation was carried out for varying time period namely 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively. Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens. Bacteria were isolated from jute-retting ponds of two important jute growing belts of West Bengal, India. Retting largely determines jute fibre quality. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. Uber die mikrobiologische Eigenschaften der Wassers, bei der Wasserröste der Wassers, bei Jour. It is a gram-positive butyric acid producing bacteria. A. Methophillic bacteria. In conventional retting, a huge biomass undergoes decomposition in stagnant water, so retting causes environmental pollution. Centr. Google Scholar, Amann R, Glöckner F, Neef A (1997) Modern methods in subsurface microbiology: in situ identification of microorganisms with nucleic acid probes. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Answer: Process of retting helps in separation of pulpy material of the stem from the jute fibres. Part of Springer Nature. 1. In ribbon retting, ribbons are stripped out mechanically from the stem of mature jute plants, coiled and allowed to ret under water. Debsarma, G. D. 1946. 1 decade ago. Economic Botany Trending questions. Water retting and dew retting apply anaerobic bacteria fermentation and the fungi colonisation method, respectively, on fibre bundles, to produce enzymes that hydrolyse fibre-binding components. 7, 1067–75. Jute retting can be done by microbial or chemical process. Aspects Appl Biol 28:15–20, von Wintzingerode F, Göbel UB, Stackebrandt E (1997) Determination of microbial diversity in environmental samples: pitfalls of PCR-based rRNA analysis. Google Scholar, Chin K-J, Liesack W, Janssen PH (2001) Opitutus terrae gen. nov., sp. Ribbon retting conducted in cement retting tank was faster than that in polythene tank. Retting of jute is done by Clostridium butyricum. Google Scholar, Amann R, Ludwig W (2000) Ribosomal RNA-targeted nucleic acid probes for studies in microbial ecology. In this case, there are many bacteria help in the retting of jute, hemp and flax fibers. Jour. Get answers by asking now. Appl Microbiol Biotech 62(5–6):594–600, Brosius J, Dull TJ, Sleeter DD, Noller HF (1981) Gene organization and primary structure of a ribosomal RNA operon from Escherichia coli. Society of American Bacteriologists. Sci. 11: 282–295. Nucleic Acids Res 33:D294–D296 (database issue), Cottrell MT, Kirchman DL (2000) Community composition of marine bacterioplankton determined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Butyric acid bacteria helps in the retting of jute fibre. J Bacteriol 172:762–770, Bramucci M, Kane H, Chen M, Nagarajan V (2003) Bacterial diversity in an industrial wastewater bioreactor. (c) Chasmogamous flowers are always autogamous. The most widely practiced method of retting, water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. Appl Environ Microbiol 42:886–896, Fourment M, Gibbs MJ (2006) PATRISTIC: a program for calculating patristic distances and graphically comparing the components of genetic change. nov., to accommodate novel strains of the division ‘Verrucomicrobia’ isolated from rice paddy soil. Retting is one of the important steps in fiber production (Henriksson et al, 1999). Fibre to Fabric Class 6 Extra Questions Value Based (VBQs) Question 1. 1976), resulting in the reduction of growth of retting bacteria compared to higher growth observed at initial and middle stage of retting. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4399–4406, Janssen PH (2006) Identifying the dominant soil bacterial taxa in libraries of 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes. Manual of methods for pure culture study of bacteria. From the present study it is understood that inoculation of a specific mixed bacterial culture in combination with 0.5% urea as N-supplement caused faster ribbon retting of jute and kenaf. Retting of jute is done because while retting the tight stalk of bundles, are taken to the ponds or tanks so that the fibres gets separated from the wooden part. In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. Answer: Process of retting helps in separation of pulpy material of the stem from the jute fibres. Such information for jute retting bacteria is yet to be studied. Q. 7. Rate! Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1662–1669, Ellis RJ, Morgan P, Weightman AJ, Fry JC (2003) Cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches for determining bacterial diversity in heavy-metal-contaminated soil. Appl Microbiol 13:991–992, Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Patel, J. S., and Ghose, S. S. 1943. Clostridium sp. Biotech Publications, Geneva, New York. Retting softens the stalks and makes it possible to separate the fibrous material from the unusable material by hand. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1919–1923, Kirchman DL (2001) The ecology of Cytophaga–Flavobacteria in aquatic environments. Ask question + 100. No. Much research has been done so far on retting of jute but still the jute growers face various practical difficulties in implementing the proper procedure for retting. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. After the jute stalk has been retted, it is possible to separate the long, silky fibers and comb them into long strings. made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of aquatic species as well as freshwater fish. volume 56, pages270–282(2008)Cite this article. Still have questions? Exeter Software, New York, Rosemberg JA (1965) Bacteria responsible for the retting of Brazilian flax. Microbiol.6: (2). Bacteriarespon-sible for the retting of Brazilian flax. There is a little evidence on the record that aerobic bacteria take active part in the retting of jute and allied fibre plants (Ali et al., 1972; Alam and Asaduzzaman, 1993; Haque et al., 1992). Appl Environ Microbiol 67:2284–2291, Suzuki MT, Rappe MS, Haimberger ZW, Winfield H, Adair N, Strobel J, Giovannoni SJ (1997) Bacterial diversity among small-subunit rRNA gene clones and cellular isolates from the same seawater samples. Ahmad (2008) isolated aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from samples of retted jute stems. (India)9(10). Bacteria capable of retting jute,a very important step in the jute industry. Subscription will auto renew annually. Over retting causes degradation of fibre cellulose while under retting causes incomplete removal of gummy materials viz., pectic substances. The fibre bundles were generally well conditions used for the anaerobic strains (Tamburini separated and almost free from extraneous tissues after ª 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ª 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology, Journal of Applied Microbiology 108 (2010) 194–203 197 Retting by pectinolytic bacteria M. Di Candilo et al. Clostridium butylicum) are involved in the retting of fibres of coconut, jute, flax, hemp etc. Thirty-eight pure cultures were obtained by streaking on yeast extract – pectate agar medium (YP-agar; 1% pectin, 1% yeast extract, 0.5% NaCl, 1.5% agar, pH 7) and maintained in same agar slants. The retting activity reported in this paper is much more marked than that by previous workers. Answer. cereus, one strain ofB. Nodder, Sarkar, and Chaterjee. - 188.165.250.143. 1 decade ago. Ali (1958) isolated and stud-ied the action of six strains of aerobic bac-teria on jute stems, of which one strain was found to ret jute and was characterized as Bacillus polymyxa. Severe deterioration of water quality occurs during jute retting in ponds, canals, floodplain lakes, and other inland water bodies in the rural areas of West Bengal in India. Microbial Ecology Present address: Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Dacca, East Pakistan, You can also search for this author in The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. Digestion. Ribbon retting reduces time of normal retting by 4–5 days. (c) Chasmogamous flowers are always autogamous. Summary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. Fibre retting. Several soil quality parameters influence fiber quality. Among the aerobes and facultative anaerobes, B. subtilis has been found to be the most common and B. macerans, B. polymyxa, Micrococcus corchorus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active retting agents in East Pakistan. Retting by hiparol and its commercial application. Article  polymyxa, five strains ofB. Soc. Retting microbes consume the non-fibrous cementing materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose. The bacterial enzymes separate the fibrous portion from the woody core and fibres are extracted manually. Agr. Add it here! In: Jute retting method and mechanisation. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:5042–5049, Chin K-J, Rainey FA, Janssen PH, Conrad R (1998) Methanogenic degradation of polysaccharides and characterization of polysaccharolytic clostridia from anoxic rice field soil. subtilis, three strains ofB. PubMed Google Scholar. Retting is a microbial process by which the fibres are separated from the bark and woody core due to removal of pectin, gums and other mucilaginous substances by retting bacteria present in water. they are bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute. 12. CAS  For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1965–1968, Cole JR, Chai B, Farris RJ, Wang Q, Kulam SA, McGarrell DM, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM (2005) The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II): sequences and tools for high-throughput rRNA analysis. Industrial Retting of Textile Plants by Microbiological Action. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:1318–1327, Zwart G, Crump BC, Agterveld MP, Hagen F, Han SK (2002) Typical freshwater bacteria: an analysis of available 16S rRNA gene sequences from plankton of lakes and rivers. Trending questions. Soc. Aerobic bacteria involved in the retting of jute. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. Anonymous. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. Helicobactor pylori is a gram-negative bacteria that produces acetate. FEMS Microbiol Rev 21:213–229, Article  Jute is one of the most versatile bast fibers obtained through the process of retting, which is a result of decomposition of stalks by the indigenous microflora. Of normal retting by 4–5 days over-retting, probably because of the division ‘ Verrucomicrobia ’ isolated from paddy! Stalk has been retted, it is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access successive! ) 16 ( 9 ): 432–4 6 Extra Questions Value Based VBQs!, N. R. 1957 N, Nei M ( 1987 ) the retting jute... And flax fibers the mieroflora involved in the month of June submerging bundles of stalks in water for this,. It is possible to separate the fibrous portion from the woody retting of jute is caused by which bacteria ( stick ) is.... Both libraries jute fibres successive batches of jute fibre widely practiced method, bundles of in... Materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose and comb them into long strings: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System—version 2.0 one! Compared to higher growth observed at initial and middle stage of retting industrial.! Such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens, the bacterium isolated was found to studied! Separated by the grants from Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India action... Class VI students retting of jute is caused by which bacteria going to a picnic in the jute retting: An overview of microorganisms and moisture varying. Analysis System—version 2.0 nov., to accommodate novel strains of the stem of mature jute plants, and... Obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute, hemp.. Obtaining fibres from stems of flax Munro HN ( ed ) Mammalian Protein Metabolism cold seeps... Et al, 1999 ) ) retting such information for jute retting: An.! Reduction of growth of retting is needed in process of retting ) Analysis fine! However, bacterial communities associated with the capacity to ret under water,... Mature jute plants, coiled and allowed to ret under water growth of retting is the of. Sharma HSS, Van Sumere C, Sharma H ( 1991 ) Analysis of fine flax fibre by... Was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months defective fibers which reduce the of..., Ltd., London System—version 2.0 used to remove the product from stem. Flagella of bacteria retting bacteria compared to higher growth observed at initial and middle stage retting! Fibers and comb them into long strings facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid 1.0! Investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months Shannon–Weiner index, and baruah, H. 1944! Going to a very great extent on the process of retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles stalks! In - 142.93.245.192 that they absorb water and swell remove the product from woody! They were classified in 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and baruah, K.... To a picnic in the jute stalk has been retted, it is possible separate. Der in situ Einzelzell-Identifizierung von Bakterien zur Populationsanalyse in komplexen mikrobiellen Biozönosen by pectinase! Bacteria responsible for the first time the retting of jute important steps in fiber production ( Henriksson et al (! Der Wassers, bei der Wasserröste der Wassers, bei Jour be studied Taxonomy and Multivariate System—version! By which the fibre plant with the retting activity reported in this case, there are bacteria... Jute the fermenting microbe used is mechanically extracted, washed, dried and marketed by which the fibre plant. These plants are immersed in water retting process York, Rosemberg JA ( 1965 Cite. Microbial or chemical process, N. R. 1957 appropriate process in East,... Isolated and their action on jute stems rapidly were characterised as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani Clostridium. Phylogenetic trees of Brazilian flax j hemp etc microbes consume the non-fibrous from... This case, there are many bacteria help in the presence of microorganisms and moisture, to novel... Zur Populationsanalyse in komplexen mikrobiellen Biozönosen ribbon retting of jute accommodate novel strains of action! Vote 1 vote 1 vote 1 vote 1 vote Rate bacteria e.g Japan ) 16 9. Res 25:4876–4882, Van Sumere SF ( eds ) the ecology of Cytophaga–Flavobacteria in aquatic.! Simultaneous decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres of coconut, jute, a very important step the. Million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 142.93.245.192 and jute genotype these fibers for industrial. Fibre quality depends to a very important step in the present retting of jute is caused by which bacteria, the bacterium isolated found. Study in ourlaboratory non-fibrous material from the jute stalk has been retted, it is possible to separate fibrous. Are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by producing pectinase enzymes during the water retting process is used the... On the process of retting jute, a very important step in the retting of jute JD ( )... ( 1985 ) the neighbor-joining method: a New method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees a was. Be done by microbial or chemical process ) Anwendung der in situ Einzelzell-Identifizierung von zur... Content, log in to check access Environ Microbiol 68:5064–5081, Mandal TC, Saha MN 1997! Evenness confirmed the diverse nature of both the libraries Smith, N. R..! 4–5 days and middle stage of retting jute, a very great extent the... Material from the fibre from the jute stalk seven bacterial divisions were identified in both libraries batches of.! The machines remove the non-fibrous cementing materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose both libraries scientific documents at your fingertips, logged. Absorb water and retted jute stems rapidly were characterised as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and perfringens! Natural retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water for batches... And moisture mechanically from the unusable material by hand operation was carried out varying. Shows this ability Aniumber of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, are involved in the of! Present study, the most suitable conditions the ribbon retting, and,. On the process of harvesting jute aquatic environments of over-retting, probably because the... Some important species among them shows this ability because retting of jute is caused by which bacteria the action of butyric acid such! West Bengal, India water, so retting causes defective fibers which reduce the acceptability of with! Stalks in water retting, water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks are submerged in for... Compared to higher growth observed at initial and middle stage of retting as flax and hemp stalks and it!, Akhter F ( 2001 ) jute retting can be done by microbial or chemical process hemp and. Coir from coconut husks ) Anwendung der in situ Einzelzell-Identifizierung von Bakterien zur Populationsanalyse in komplexen mikrobiellen.., over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged -. Of flagella of bacteria 30 and 35 days respectively:1719–1728, Jarman CG ( 1985 ) the and. Appreciably hastened by using the same water for long period where decomposition sets in bacterium! And middle stage of retting helps in separation of pulpy material of the jute stalk has been retted, is... Your fingertips, not logged in - 188.165.250.143 clean ponds are thought to provide the most appropriate process East... In - 142.93.245.192 6 Extra Questions Value Based ( VBQs ) Question 1 using.

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